Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder of childhood. Approximately 11% of children 4-17 years of age (6.4 million) have been diagnosed with ADHD as of 20111. Its core symptoms include developmentally inappropriate levels of attention, concentration, activity, distractibility, and impulsivity.
Children with ADHD usually have functional impairment across multiple settings that have been shown to have long-term adverse effects on academic performance, vocational success, and social-emotional development. The mainstay of current treatment regimens are psychostimulants including amphetamine, methylphenidate (Ritalin), and pemoline.
The psychostimulants are efficacious in ADHD. However there is a serious abuse potential with long-term administration and concern over side effects. There is a need for an ADHD drug that can modulate the attention deficit without causing other behavioral problems and with minimal or no addiction potential.
Shown to improve attention processes in: