QapzolaTM (apaziquone) for Intravesical Instillation
Being investigated as intravesical instillation in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.
Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC)
Cystoscopic appearance of tumors in the bladder.
Route of Administration
Intravesical Instillation (instilled directly into the bladder)
Mode of Action
Qapzola is a bio-reductive agent activated by reductase enzymes, such as DT-diaphorase, expressed by bladder tumor cells, to form cytotoxic alkylating agents.
A) Bladder tumor before intravesical therapy.
According to the National Cancer Institute, bladder cancer is the fifth most common malignancy in the US with 74,000 new cases of bladder cancer expected in 2015, and currently over 500,000 patients living with the disease.
Approximately 70% of all patients newly diagnosed with bladder cancer have NMIBC. Urologists treat the disease predominantly by TURBT. In the U.S., there are approximately 300,000 TURBT procedures every year to treat bladder cancer. Because of the high recurrence rate, both professional urology associations and NCCN Guidelines recommend the instillation of a cytotoxic agent following TURBT for NMIBC, although in the U.S., there are no FDA-approved agents for this indication.
The global prevalence of bladder cancer is estimated at 2.7 million.
Risk factors for bladder cancer include smoking and exposure to certain industrial chemicals. Symptoms may include hematuria, painful or burning urination without evidence of a urinary tract infection, or abdominal pain. If detected early, bladder cancer is a managable disease.
The initial treatment of this cancer is complete surgical removal of the tumor (TURBT). However, bladder cancer is a highly recurrent disease with approximately 80% of patients recurring within 5 years, and a majority of these patients recur within 2 years.
Because bladder cancer patients have a high risk of recurrence, bladder cancer is the most expensive cancer to treat on a per patient lifetime basis. (Botteman et al., Pharmacoeconomics, 2003).
For additional information on bladder cancer, please refer to the following links:
The American Urological Association (AUA)
The Bladder Cancer Advisory Network (BCAN)
American Bladder Cancer Society (ABLCS) www.bladdercancersupport.org
National Cancer Institute
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